"Indigenous Canadians earn about 70 cents for every dollar made by non-Indigenous Canadians, according to Canada's income data. This is a very frequent occurrence in metropolitan areas, where Indigenous employees earn 34% less than non-Indigenous workers doing the same job. The situation is much worse in remote reservations* where non-Indigenous individuals earn up to 88 percent more than Indigenous people." 
Education is considered a human right in Canada. Yet, while Canada has one of the world's highest levels of educational attainment, the graduation rate for Indigenous students remains far lower than that of non-Indigenous students. How is that possible? The answer lies in the history of Canada.
A First Nation reserve is a tract of land set aside under the Indian Actand treaty agreements for the exclusive use of an Indian band (First Nation). Earliest examples of reserves date back to attempts by French missionaries in 1637 to encourage Aboriginal Peoples to settle in one spot and embrace both agriculture and Christianity. As more and more Europeans settled in Canada and on the traditional lands of Indigenous Peoples, it became apparent to the authorities that an effective means to ensure the most fertile land was available to European farmers was needed. The development of the reserve system met this need.
In 2015, we published an article outlining the eight key issues of primary concern for Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Since then, the article has been viewed over 620,000 times, making it the most-viewed article of the hundreds on our Working Effectively with Indigenous Peoples® blog. Due to the continuing high interest, we decided to take a deeper look at each of the eight issues.
Prior to the introduction of the Indian Actin 1876, communities were self-governing and leadership was designated according to each community's tradition. Under the Indian Act, elections became cumbersome, people could be nominated without consent, getting ballots to off-reserve members is an inaccurate process, contact lists are often not up to date, there is no provision for a re-count if the tally is close, and no advance polling. One of the greatest frustrations is that elections must be held every two years which is not a very big window for First Nation governments to accomplish anything long-term. Times have changed (thankfully) since 1876.
What are iconic images to some are considered stereotypical, generic, ignorant and insulting to others. When it comes to the masses, stereotypical First Nation cultural images continue to do a great disservice to the cultural diversity of Indigenous Peoples.
Corby Lamb is the president and owner of Capacity Forest Management Ltd. Corby was born and raised in Campbell River and has spent his life working in all aspects of the BC Forest Industry. Corby sits on the Provincial Forestry Forum, First Nations Sub Committee and the Resource Tenures Stewardship Committee as an advisor on First Nations as well. Corby is also a Director of the Campbell River Salmon Foundation and is the Board Chair of the Campbell River Chamber of Commerce.
In 2003, Corby Lamb, President, Capacity Forest Management Inc., left a senior management position with Western Forest Products Inc. to launch a unique, full service forest management company. Corby kindly took some time to describe the mandate of his Campbell River based company.
For some First Nation people, inherent rights are rights bestowed upon them by the Creator who placed them on Turtle Island and provided them with instruction on how to live. While not all creation stories are the same they all share this theme. The Creator’s instruction formed the basis of the traditional knowledge, culture, traditions and oral traditions that have directed First Nations ever since. Therefore, First Nation inherent rights are not granted by the Crown and attempts to insinuate otherwise will be met with arguments of assimilation.
This is the fourth in our series First Nations and Voting. In the Indian Act and the Right to Vote, we delved into the history of First Nations obtaining the right to vote. In First Nations Right to Vote, we provided some information on First Nation voter turnout since the 2004 federal election. The reasons why more First Nations don’t exercise their right to vote was covered in Barriers to First Nation Voting. This time we are looking at First Nation swing ridings for the upcoming 2015 federal election. This article was updated on October 26, 2015, to show the results of the election in each of the identified 51 swing ridings, as well as the number of Aboriginal MPs elected.
Indigenous Corporate Training Inc., provides information on this blog for free as a resource for those seeking information about Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Readers looking for more detailed information, or who have questions, can sign up for our fee-for-service training. Also, ICT encourages everyone who reads this information to use their best judgment given their own circumstances, vulnerabilities, and needs, and to contact a consulting or legal professional if you have more specific questions. Join the conversation over on our Linkedin page.