What’s the Difference Between Historic and Modern Treaties

We have received requests to provide a description of the difference between historic and modern treaties. This article attempts to answer the question plus provide some additional background. 

For terms of reference, historic treaties were made between 1701 and 1923. Historic treaties were marked in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and parts of British Columbia; the first  modern treaty was signed in 1975.

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10 Treaty Facts

Treaties are negotiated agreements that define the rights, responsibilities and relationships between Aboriginal groups and federal and provincial governments. The treaty system was a means by which the Crown gained sovereignty, without military intervention, over the west in order to open it up for settlers. In return for pledging allegiance to the Crown the chiefs and their communities received promises (each Treaty is different) in exchange for the majority of their land. The Constitution Act 1982 reaffirmed and upheld all historic treaties made between 1701 and 1923, as well as modern land claim settlements.

 

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The Importance of Treaty Education    

James B. (Jamie) Wilson is the former* Commissioner, Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba. He is passionate about the importance of treaty education for all Canadians and believes very strongly that recognition that treaties have shaped this country and that all Canadians need to acknowledge that we all have treaty people. We were honoured to have the opportunity to talk to the Commissioner about his work and his goals as Commissioner.

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Jamie Wilson Commissioner Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba      

James B. (Jamie) Wilson, B.A., U.S.T.C., M.Ed.  is the Commissioner, Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba

In an Opaskwayak Cree Nation family brimming with PhD holders, Jamie Wilson likes to refer to himself as the ‘underachiever’. Yet, nothing could be further from the truth. Armed with a Masters degree in education administration, a fascinating military career as an elite Special Operations Ranger, and possessing a warrior spirit and a passion for education, Wilson is rapidly earning a reputation as one of Canada’s brightest, new Aboriginal leaders with a pragmatic, get-things-done attitude.

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Extinguishment of First Nation Title

The history of extinguishment of First Nation title has its roots in old or historic treaties as shown from the excerpt below from Treaty 3, between Her Majesty the Queen and the Saulteau Tribe of the Ojibbbeway Indians, signed on October 3, 1873. It is plain to see the language of extinguishment - “cede, release, surrender”.

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Supreme Court of Canada upholds constitutionality of Nisga’a Treaty

Gitlaxt’aamiks, BC, August 22, 2013 – Today the Nisga’a Nation welcomed the decision of the highest court in the land, the Supreme Court of Canada, as it declined to hear the challenge to the constitutional validity of the Nisga’a Treaty brought by James Robinson and Mercy Thomas.

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James Anaya UN Broken treaties must become a thing of the past

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The Wampum with Ken Maracle

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B.C. treaty planning resource guide receives national award

Ministry of Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation

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Bands call for return of Agency #1 lands

Rainy Lake has always been important to the Anishinaabe of this region,” says Chief Janice Henderson of Mitaanjigamiing First Nation.
“The district needs to work harder to understand the history and the importance of reconciling the many claims and issues have had with the way land and resources have been dealt with by Ontario and Canada, and commit to supporting processes that deal fairly with them,” she added.

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